This 3D model has an aerial extent of about 390 x 160 m, and is located within the Krafla Fissure Swarm in Northern Iceland; here, a number of volcanic craters with a N-S alignment associated with the 1984 Krafla eruption can be observed (Saemundsson et al., 2012). The craters formed within basaltic pyroclastites that were emplaced along an eruptive fissure, associated with a N-S oriented dyke at shallow depth.
In the central part of the model, the process of breaching of the pyroclastic cone flank can be clearly observe; from the breached side of the cone, a lava flow was emitted (Pasquaré Mariotto et al., 2020).
A normal fault can be seen, cutting through the flank of the coalesced cones. This structure has been interpreted as originated by a volcano-tectonic collapse, favoured by the void space within the dyke, after magma was pushed to the surface to feed the lava flow. Another normal fault at the side of the volcano, parallel to the eruptive fissure, can be recognized.

Credits: UAV-based survey and 3D DOM by Fabio Marchese, Fabio L. Bonali and Elena Russo; funding from MIUR project ACPR15T4_00098 ( Model descripition by Fabio L. Bonali and Federico Pasquaré Mariotto.


  • Pasquaré Mariotto F., Bonali, F. L., & Venturini, C. (2020). Iceland, an Open-Air Museum for Geoheritage and Earth Science Communication Purposes. Resources, 9(2), 14.
  • Saemundsson, K., Hjartarson, A., Kaldal, I., Sigurgeirsson, M.A., Kristinsson, S.G. and Vikingsson, S. (2012) Geological map of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Northern Part 1: 100.000. Reykjavik: Iceland GeoSurvey and Landsvirkjun.