The area shown in this 3D model is located east of the Laxa river, in northern Iceland (Saemundsson et al., 2012), and is characterized by the presence of a series of rootless volcanic cones, which are not linked with the magmatic conduit. These features form when the lava flow gets in contact with a water body, such as a lake or a river, causing a rapid heating of the water and a consequent explosion due to the generated overpressure. The explosion causes the formation of a small volcanic edifice (a few tens of meters in height). It is also possible to notice the presence of a composite volcanic edifice, with two different craters next to each other.

Credits: UAV-based survey and 3D model by Fabio Marchese and Fabio L. Bonali; funding is from MIUR project ACPR15T4_00098 ( Model description by Alessandro Tibaldi and Federico Pasquaré Mariotto.


  • Saemundsson, K., Hjartarson, A., Kaldal, I., Sigurgeirsson, M.A., Kristinsson, S.G. and Vikingsson, S. (2012) Geological map of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Northern Part 1: 100.000. Reykjavik: Iceland GeoSurvey and Landsvirkjun.